Wire matrix programmer
Well, this is not exactly data storage unit, but it's for storing some digital states. This type of programming device was used in simple, dedicated digital systems to program only necessary information into system. It was of course read-only, storing only few bits of necessary set-up information. This item comes from early system used to automate work cycles of some printing machinery. It was made in Poland, but controlled machine was foreign. The system was made probably to help automate the process.
LN-9 (ЛН-9) memory tube
This is an example of memory tube, it's probably not
from computer but radar, made to eliminate still signals coming e.g.
from mountains or towers. Very similar tubes were used in early
computers as random access memory (RAM). The main principle of operation
of these tubes was similar to CRT. Instead of visible screen, the
electron beam hit the screen which could be charged by it. The
screen is made of metal-coated mica. A mesh placed in parallel to mica
surface protects charge from moving (secondary emission). The screen was
connected with wire coming out from tube. If the previously charged area
was hit second time, the amount of energy released from screen to
wire was different than in case in which not charged area is hit. This
technique allowed to save even few thousands of bits in one tube.
This tube uses magnetic electron beam deflection, which is useful in radars (notice circular hole in the center of screen too), but other tubes used electrostatic one (like in oscilloscope tubes).
The tube was not a permanent storage of information, it required periodic refreshing. A nice explaination of memory tubes can be found in this article.